A review of mathematical modeling of addiction regarding both neuro- psychological processes and the social contagion perspectives

http://bourgas.ru/bolgariya-mozhet-vyigrat-evrovidenie-2020/?utm_source=yxnews&utm_medium=mobile&utm_referrer=https%3A%2F%2Fyandex.ru%2Fnews of psychological addiction tend to vary from one person to another because everyone experiences the drug addiction psychology process differently. The main causes of psychological addiction are trauma and underlying mental health problems. At the same time, symptoms range from strong cravings to obsession with the drug and social isolation. The moral model states that addictions are the result of human weakness, and are defects of character. Those who advance this model do not accept that there is any biological basis for addiction. They often have scant sympathy for people with serious addictions, believing either that a person with greater moral strength could have the force of will to break an addiction, or that the addict demonstrated a great moral failure in the first place by starting the addiction.

For many in the medical community, the shift in the paradigm is long overdue; casting addiction as a personal flaw was wrong, but presenting it as a medical disease was a mistake. At the root of addictive behavior is some form of emotional stress, an issue that is so deeply buried within the person’s subconscious mind that addressing it is too overwhelming or unfathomable a challenge. To ease the stress, to make it go away, pleasure is found in excess; the fun of a drunken night out or the thrill of making an expensive bet. A person who drinks to the point of alienating friends and family and losing a job, and continues to drink in spite of all this, islikely addicted to alcohol. Similarly, a person who has an uncontrollable need to gamble, even dipping into life savings to play, and wants to do nothing else but gamble is probably addicted to the risk of gambling.

The moral model of addictions

Through strategic marketing campaign concepts, Alyssa has established Banyan as an industry leader and a national household name. Sometimes it is only after several relapses that a person discovers what recovery from an addiction means for them.

childhood experiences

Addiction involves changes in the functioning of the brain and body due to persistent use of nicotine, alcohol and/or other substances. In substance abusers, these beliefs are paired with automatic thoughts that activate urges and cravings.

Positive affect

Central to this attachment-based integration of neuroscience and psychoanalysis are the mental representations of attachment or the internal working models of expectations and attributions about the mother, the child, and the dyadic relationship . These representations guide behaviors, attitudes, and expectations, and emerge during the first mother-infant interactions (Huth-Bocks, Muzik, Beeghly, Earls, & Stacks, 2014; Suchman, McMahon, Zhang, Mayes, & Luthar, 2006). On the contrary, when an individual recognizes castration, and thus the notion of rules, impossibility, and otherness in society, two alternatives become available to deal with the resulting frustration. The first alternative is to repress the castration, as is the case of the neurotic structure. Such an approach would defy the rules of jouissance (e.g., by only using drugs in social gatherings) but with a resulting quota of guilt or shame for challenging The Other (i.e., social contract). In both cases, addiction would be understood as an act of rebellion against castration, by self-administering an extra quota of jouissance (i.e., plus de jouir) with substance use (Bazan & Detandt, 2013; Lacan, 1969; Loose, 2002).

What are two psychological explanations of addiction?

Psychologists propose several possible causes of addiction. First, people may engage in harmful behaviors because of an abnormality, or "psychopathology" that manifests itself as mental illness. Second, people may learn unhealthy behavior in response to their environment.

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Attachment Theory: Mental representations, reflective functioning, and addiction

His psychoanalytic theory states that deficits in how a person organizes, cares for, and protects themselves, not conflicts, underlie substance abuse. Psychological symptoms can be understood and treated, but not by dealing with them as spiritual problems, lack of education, lack of motivation, or simply faulty thinking. We have failed to help people suffering with addictions because we have failed to understand addictive behavior as the psychological symptom that it is. If you, or someone you know, have an addiction to drugs or substances, the healthcare provider or addiction specialist is worth contacting. Besides the evaluation of your addiction, the specialists will explain the physiological addiction process and what makes it so different from physical addiction. Treatment for psychological withdrawal may include a combination of therapy and medications. In some cases, medications are necessary to address underlying mental health problems.

  • In essence, the motivation of the behavior selection is determined by the desirability of the outcome.
  • Yet another set of psychological theories address human information processing.
  • Detailed comparison of ecstasy and heroin users demonstrates that they are significantly different.
  • Taken together, this model provides a holistic conceptualization of addiction that acknowledges the complexity of the disorder and provides guidance toward a solution, which must necessarily be multifaceted and holistic as well.

For some patients, psychological addiction may resolve itself with the treatment of physical addiction; however, in most cases, that is not enough. Detox doesn’t address the underlying reasons and motivations behind substance abuse. The nucleus accumbens is located in the area of the brain called the basal forebrain. This region is crucial for modulating the processing of emotions, motivation, reward, and pleasure. Not only does nucleus accumbens participate in the processing of those feelings, but it also gives you the desire to recreate them. As a person attempts to achieve the drug-produced feelings again, they get into the vicious cycle that leads to psychological addiction. That happens due to excessive release of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, according to a study from Neuropharmacology.

Evidence-Based Psychological Approaches for Working with Addictions and Relapse

If these behaviors – compulsively cleaning or exercising or shopping – were directed at obtaining and using drugs, we would be quick to label them addictions. Indeed, some addictions are named compulsions, such as “compulsive gambling.” The fact that we don’t think of all these compulsive/addictive behaviors as the same is simply a historical error.

Substances that can cause psychological addiction include alcohol, opioids, inhalants, cannabis, stimulants like cocaine, and hallucinogenic drugs such as LSD. For example, researchers have found a robust association between trauma and addiction (Dube et al., 2002, 2003; Giordano et al., 2016). Indeed, in the original Adverse Childhood Experiences study, Felitti et al. found that more ACEs increased the odds of subsequent drug and alcohol use. One explanation for this trend is that the toxic stress from trauma leads to a dysregulated stress response.

Developing Psychological Flexibility

A person might use a drug for the first time and enjoy the feelings it creates, which is a positive reinforcement for the behavior. Similarly, the person might find that the drug decreases a negative feeling like pain, low mood, or anxiety. These basic learning theories are taken a step further with an understanding of social learning theory. A person does not necessarily have to experience the rewards and punishments themselves; learning also happens by watching others engage in the behavior and seeing what happens to them. Some people are able to adjust to controlled drinking, drug use, or addictive behaviors without becoming addicted.

Figure 6.One-third of inpatient hospital costs and 20% of all deaths in the United States every year are the http://nbt-stroy.ru/catalog/gruntovki-emali-laki/poliuretanovaya-emal-tinlayn-06/ of untreated addictions and risky substance use. Statistics have shown that those who start to drink alcohol at a younger age are more likely to become dependent later on. About 33% of the population tasted their first alcohol between the ages of 15 and 17, while 18% experienced it prior to this. As for alcohol abuse or dependence, the numbers start off high with those who first drank before they were 12 and then drop off after that.

Notwithstanding the specific mechanism, it seems that an important factor leading to substance dependence may be the context in which the individual and its addiction are embedded. Considering their role in organizing behaviors and expectations in relation to danger and adversity, attachment representations may be a central element in understanding addictions across generations. Studies have emphasized how extreme childhood experiences, including trauma, abuse, and adversity, can be barriers to coherent and secure attachment representations (Speranza, Nicolais, Vergano, & Dazzi, 2017). Notably, Speranza and colleagues redefined this apparent breakdown of reasoning and discourse observed in the AAI into a more flexible and clinically meaningful “low-coherence CC” category, which is characterized by emptiness, inconsistency, and fragmentation. Consequently, absent or traumatically ruptured attachments are expected to impact the development of personal identity and affect regulation (Berner, Carlos, & Whipple, 2010; Fonagy et al., 2004; Speranza et al., 2017). Importantly, incentive sensitization compels persistence in substance use irrespective of whether the individual dislikes the substance and its negative consequences, if they are attempting to abstain, or even in the absence of withdrawal symptoms (Robinson & Berridge, 2004). Also, Robinson and Berridge argue that the insidious brain changes that sensitize the brain to drug-related cues can lead to relapse even long after the disappearance of withdrawal symptoms.

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